Monthly Archives: August 2022

The “Not So Cool” Story of Refrigeration

Imagine a modern home without a refrigerator? Well, it’s hard to even think what we would do without refrigeration. Modern cities in developed countries depend heavily on refrigeration to keep perishable food items fresh and safe for daily consumption. The technique of refrigeration has impacted agriculture, industry and lifestyles across centuries evolving from ice harvesting to temperature controlled rail cars.

Refrigeration is the name given to the process that ‘removes heat from one location to another’ creating a cool or cold environment that has many applications like household refrigerators, air conditioning systems, cryogenic facilities and industrial freezer units.

The idea of cooling beverages has its origin in the ancient Chinese and Roman empires. Seasonal harvesting of snow and ice is a practice dated prior to 1000 B.C. according to a collection of Chinese lyrics from the period known as the Shih dynasty. The next mention of ice harvesting is in the time of the Jews and is mentioned in the book of Proverbs in the Bible. Other civilizations such as the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans made use of large snow pits lined with tree branches and chaff to cool beverages and keep fruit cool. But it was not until the Persian culture when the usage of an ice pit called Yakhchal is mentioned; this may be the precursor to cold storage of food for preservation.

In the early 1800s, ice became a mass-market commodity with a large majority of people using ice boxes to store dairy products, fish, fruits, meat and vegetables, thus paving the way for the acceptance of refrigeration technology.

Refrigeration – the timeline

William Cullen, a Scottish professor was the first to examine the idea of artificial refrigeration by creating a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether that absorbed heat from the surrounding air. This was in 1755 but the experiment had no practical application at that time.

In 1758, professors Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley investigated the principle of evaporation as a means of rapidly cooling an object by conducting an experiment at Cambridge University.

In the year 1820, renowned British Scientist Michael Faraday used high pressures and low temperatures to liquefy ammonia and other gases.

American scientist Jacob Perkins working in Great Britain in 1834, assembled the first ever closed-cycle vapor compression refrigeration system. Although the prototype, not patented, was the first known system to function successfully, it did not have any commercial success.

American physician John Gorrie made a similar attempt in 1842 but again it was a commercial failure.

The first patented, practical vapor compression refrigeration system using alcohol, ether or ammonia came in 1856 built by James Harrison.

In 1860, Ferdinand Carre of France patented his gas absorption refrigeration system design referred to as “aqua ammonia”, the process of using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water.

Meanwhile, an engineering professor at the Technological University Munich in Germany had been working on an improved method of liquefying gases. In 1876 he patented this new process which was made possible by using gases such as ammonia, sulphur dioxide and methyl chloride as ‘refrigerants’, a practice that began to be widely used until the late 1920s.

A refrigerant is a substance or chemical used in a heat cycle, as in the case of refrigeration, to convert liquid into gas.

By the turn of the 19th century, refrigeration came to play a vital role in the food distribution industry first through natural ice and then on manufactured ice. Many food and meat packing houses in America adopted ammonia-cycle refrigeration units for their storage facilities.

With the idea of artificial refrigeration a huge success, came the thought of refrigeration for household purposes. The limitations were largely on account of size as they were designed for installation on lorries, truck and storage houses and the safety factor in case of fire accidents where toxic gases leaked or exploded.

Refrigeration for the home

In 1911, General Electric (GE) became the first company to overcome the challenges of meeting refrigeration needs for the home. GE released a household unit powered by gas that eliminated the need for a motor and considerably decreased the size of the unit. However, the idea of a gas-powered unit did not go down well with electric customers of GE so an electric model framework was set into operation.

In 1927, Monitor Top, the world’s first ever refrigerator to run on electricity was released. The idea created waves with many other companies hitching their bandwagon in the run-up to improve upon this new invention.

One of GE’s main competitors, Frigidaire entered the fray in 1930, synthesizing Freon as a refrigerant. This was a breakthrough invention that enabled the development of cheaper, lighter and smaller refrigerators for home use. At that time the use of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) was considered to be less harmful than the more commonly used refrigerants like ammonia, methyl chloride and sulphur dioxide. The intent was to provide safer home equipment at affordable prices.

whirlpool ice magic pro Nowadays, home refrigerators have become stylized home appliances with a variety of designs, colors and sizes with varying temperature control functions to cater to the needs of small, medium and large families.

What Are the Advantages of Playing at Online Casinos?

Online casinos paranoia about “casino bonus hunters” is forcing them to be very creative to wean the hunter away hurting all players with complicated bonus rules. One of the most recent creations are “phantom” or “sticky casino bonuses” – the equivalent of lucky chips in land and mortar casinos. The amount of the casino bonus is impossible to withdraw, it must remain on the casino player’s account (as if it “has stuck” to it), until it is completely lost, or annulled on the first withdrawal of cash means (disappears like a phantom). A casino bonus is “sticky” if in the terms and conditions of the online casinos it is described as non-cashable or for wagering purposes only. The online casinos do not call the bonus “sticky”. That’s the players slang for a bonus that “sticks” with the casinos.

To make it simple: a casino player would have two accounts deposit and casino bonus account. Bonus account cannot be cashed in, but can be used for wagering purpose. Deposit account may only be cashed in once the balance of the casino bonus account is zero.

At first glance it may seem that these casino bonuses are completely useless for the players and there is little sense in such bonuses – you won’t get your money back anyway, you won’t get your winnings, you would only waste your precious time. But it is not completely true. If you win, then there is really no point in the casino bonus, but if you have lost, it may be of use to you. Without the casino bonus you have lost your $100 and that’s it, bye-bye. But with the bonus, even if it is a “sticky casino bonus”, it is still on your account, which can help you worm out of the situation, to wait out the negative trend.

However a possibility to win back “sticky casino bonus” is a bit less than 50% (for that you only need to bet the entire amount on the chances in roulette). In order to maximize profits out “sticky casino bonuses” a casino player has employ a high risk strategy “play-an-all-or-nothing game”. Really, if you bet with small stakes, you will slowly and surely lose because of the negative mathematical expectations in the casino games, and the bonus will only prolong an agony, and won’t help you to win. Indeed, since a player expects to lose anyway thanks to the build-in house edge, and due to the non-cashable terms of the bonus, where is the profit?

Professional players tent to wager sticky bonuses aggressively. Somebody bets the entire amount on chances, in the hope to double it. Even though it is not possible to cash out the bonus, professionals can use it to win money that can be cashed out. judi online Just imagine, you stake all $200 on chances, with a probability of 49% you would win neat $200. With a probability of 51% you would lose your $100 and $100 of the bonus. judi slot online That is to say, a stake has positive mathematical expectations for you $200*0,49-$100*0,51=$47.

The difference between cashable bonuses and sticky ones is that the closer you are to meeting the casino wagering requirements the less aggressively you should play your cashable bonus, it would be yours anyway. So why should you risk. Besides, conservative wagering of cashable bonuses would help to avoid big fluctuations of the hands results. With the non-cashable casino bonuses the profit comes from the fact that a player can wager with the casino’s money and keep the winnings. Betting sticky bonuses aggressively would help to avoid “work hard” through the whole wagering requirements and get the results early. If number of big wins comes early, a player can always cut back the bets and “work hard” through the wagering requirements with smaller stakes to protect the winnings from that point on.

What Makes Online Casinos So Famous?

Online casinos provide several incentives to attract new players and retain existing players at their casino. The bonuses can become the major criteria for players in deciding an online casino to play at. There are various types of online casino bonuses and each has its particular advantages and conditions. You should get some understanding about the bonuses, especially the terms and conditions before you accepting the bonuses.

In general, there are 2 categories of bonuses: STICKY & CASHABLE bonuses. Sticky bonuses are the free money that lent to you by the casino. You can use the sticky bonuses to play your favorite games, if you win and meet the wagering requirements, you can only withdraw the winnings and not the sticky bonuses. The casino will take back the bonus upon your withdrawal. On the other hand, cashable bonuses are the money that can be withdrawn along with your winnings after meeting the wagering requirements. Normally the online casinos won’t state their bonus offers to be the sticky or cashable in their promotion page; you need to read the terms & conditions to find out which category the bonuses are.

Regardless of sticky or cashable bonuses, there are a few common casino bonuses, which can be found in casino’s promotion page. These bonuses are:

No Deposit Bonuses

No Deposit Bonuses are free money given by the casino. It does not require you to deposit any money. You just need to open a real-player account with the casino that offers no-deposit bonuses. Normally the bonuses will be automatically deposited into your player’s account, but some online casinos may require you to confirm your account through a confirmation email, or upon verification of your credit card before the no-deposit bonus being deposited into your account. Most no-deposit bonuses are ranging from $10 to $100 depending on the casinos. Some online casinos offer no-deposit bonuses in the term of free-play; this type of no-deposit bonus is normally offered for playing slots machines or video poker. Once you have sign-up a real-player account with the casino, you will be given a certain amount like $500 free-play bonus or a number of hours such as 5-hour free-play time at the casino. There are terms & conditions of wagering requirements on the no-deposit bonuses that you need to meet before you can withdraw the winning.

Welcome / Sign Up Bonuses

Online casinos reward new players by offering welcome or sign up bonuses. These bonuses are offered in term of matching bonus based on the amount deposited by the new players. Normally, online casinos will match 100% to 200% for the first deposit, but some casinos may go up to 500% to attract more new players. The welcome bonuses may be matched only with the first deposit, or a few initial deposits depending on the casino’s promotion strategy. The bonuses normally have a minimum and maximum deposit limits. The player needs to deposit the amount the meet the minimum deposit in order to eligible for the bonuses. And, the casino will only match the bonuses up the maximum deposit amount. satta

Weekly and Monthly Deposit Bonus

Existing players will also be rewarded whenever they deposit the money into their account. These bonuses normally are given in term of weekly or monthly bonuses, which normally ranges from 25% to 50%.

Cash-back Bonuses

Some casinos will refund some of your losses during a certain period of play in term of cash-back bonuses. It may range from 5% to 15%. The more you lose the more cash-back bonus you will get. Off course, you don’t want to get more on this type of bonus because it means the more you get, the more you have lost to the casino. However, it is still an attractive bonuses offered by online casinos.

Refer-A-Friend Bonuses

This is the incentive given to the players who refer or invite their friends to play at the casino. You can get some money (normally $50) for every player who register into the casino with your help.

What Are Video Slot Machines?

Among various methods of gambling, online casino gambling has become a trend lately. These online casinos are known by several names such as Internet casino, virtual casino etc. The concept of online casino is the same as that of land based casinos. The main advantage of online casino gambling over traditional land based gambling is that it can be done at any hour from any corner of the world. Online casinos give enormous opportunities to gamers to play and earn huge amount of profits. Most of the casinos offer high payback percentages and that is the most lucrative aspect of online casinos.

There are a couple of casinos that make tall promises in terms of unbelievably high payback percentages in regard to slot machine games like poker. There are also a few casinos that use a well programmed random number generator. In such casinos, table games usually have a preset house edge. The payout percentage is fixed and is decided according to rules of the game.

Online casinos can be broadly classified into three categories namely web based online casino, live based casino and lastly download based online casino. Web based casinos allow gamers to play their favourite games without even downloading the specialised software. Games are played either through HTML interface or browser plugins such as Macromedia Shockwave and Macromedia Flash. Download-based online casinos, on the other hand, have a mandatory requirement to download the software. In fact, you cannot start playing unless and until you download this software. Live casinos provide live gaming environment to its players that makes the game more enjoyable.

Gamers playing at online casinos usually never leave the casino without earning profits. Reward can be in cash or kind. Every time, it is not necessary that you will get handsome cash. Sometimes, you don’t get cash at all but you get an opportunity to win exciting jackpots and several kinds of bonuses. There are bonuses on new sign-ups. Most of the online casinos require you to pay a certain amount before allowing you to try your luck in online casino gambling. 토토사이트

There are some online gambling casinos that provide its gamers with cash back bonus in which you get back a specific portion of the total amount you lost in the game. Online gaming offers an average gamer numerous opportunities to multiply his/her income by several times. There are lots of lucrative casino bonuses that include instant cash bonus, sign up bonus, no deposit casino bonus and many more. The best part about online casino gambling is that without investing even a single penny, you can become rich overnight. There are many casinos that allow you to play for free. In fact, for opening account, the casino gives free bonus; that is more than what one could hope for. Monthly bonuses have also become a part of strategy of most of the online casinos to entice visitors. But that is an added advantage. So, who wouldn’t mind receiving a certain amount of money every month?

What most of the gamblers do is they don’t make any investment to play games at online casino. They simply use the bonus amount to gamble and win further prizes. So many gamblers have become millionaires within a short span of time. All this has been possible through online gambling at casino. To conclude, online casino gambling is believed to be one of the quickest and most lucrative means of earning money.

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